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2006-06-20 17:08:44
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Svenska adjektiv

Swedish adjective.

Welcome to hell! ;) Or, well, this is just a very tricky part of the Swedish language. Adjectives have to agree with the noun, but it's not that easy!

If the noun the adjective is describing is an "ett"-word or if it's the general "det" (As is "It's dark" Det är mörkt"), it should use the -t-form of the adjective. If it's an "en"-word or a person, then it should be the n-ending and if it's plural, then the -a-form should be used.

Here are a few adjectives that you need to know. Listed in normal n-form, t-form, plural form (-a or "små") and the explicit form (-a):
big stor stort stora stora
  Jag bor i en stor villa. I live in a big villa.
  Jag bor i ett stort hus I live in a big house.
  Jag bor i flera stora hus. I live in many big houses.
  Jag bor i det stora huset. I live in the big house.
small liten litet små lilla
  Jag bor i en liten villa. I live in a small villa.
  Jag bor i ett litet hus I live in a small house.
  Jag bor i flera små hus. I live in many small houses.
  Jag bor i det lilla huset. I live in the little house.
  Jag bor i de små husen. I live in the small houses.
  (little lite "a little milk" lite mjölk)
good bra bra bra bra
bad dålig dåligt dåliga dåliga
many många "There are many houses there." Det är/finns många hus där.
few  "There are few houses there." Det är/finns få hus där.
green grön grönt gröna gröna
yellow gul gult gula gula
blue blå blått blåa blåa
black svart svart svarta svarta
white vit vitt vita vita
red röd rött röda röda
brown brun brunt bruna bruna
beautiful vacker vackert vackra vackra
ugly ful fult fula fula
funny rolig roligt roliga roliga
interesting intressant intressant intressanta instressanta

Not changing:
much mycket 
 Jag har mycket mjölk.
 I have a lot of milk.

And the possessive pronouns:

my min mitt mina
  Jag bor i min villa. I live in my villa.
  Jag bor i mitt hus I live in my house.
  Jag bor i mina hus. I live in my houses.
your din ditt dina
our vår vårt våra
your (plural) er ert era

Not changing ones:
her hennes 
his hans 
its dens
its dets
theirs deras


Jag bor i mitt lilla hus. I live in my small/little house.
Det lilla huset är mitt. The small house is mine.
De små husen är mina The small houses are mine.
Mina hus är små. My houses are small.
Ett av de blåa husen är mitt. One of the blue houses is mine.

Comparations - Good better best

This is easier! Now the adjectives don't change to agree with nouns anymore:
Mitt hus är bättre än hans. My house is better than his.
Min villa är bättre än hans. My villa is better than his.
Det här är den bättre villan. This is the better villa.
Det här villan är bättre. This villa is better.

Too easy? OK, I was kidding you, of course it's not that easy:
Den här är den bästa villan. This the the best villa.
De här är de bästa villorna. These are the best villas.
Den här villan är bäst. This villa is the best.
Det här huset är bäst. This house is the best.
De här husen är bäst. These houses are the best.
Hon är min bästa kompis She is my best friend.

So you have to add "-a" if it's den/de/min största någonting (the/my biggest something), but otherwise just use this table:

So here are the comparations:
big stor större störst
small liten mindre minst
  (less mindre "less milk" mindre mjölk)
good bra bättre bäst
bad dålig sämre sämst
many många fler flest
  Note: mer mjölk more milk, fler människor more people.
much mycket mer mest
few  färre "minst antal"
green grön grönare grönast
yellow gul gulare gulast
blue blå blåare blåast
black svart svartare svartast
white vit vitare vitast
red röd rödare rödast
brown brun brunare brunast
beautiful vacker vackrare vackrast
ugly ful fulare fulast
funny rolig roligare roligast
interesting intressant mer intressant  mest intressant

Adverbs then? good => well

Adverbs are generally the same as the t-form of the adjective and you can compare them as adjectives with bra bättre bäst (well, better, best)
Some examples:
well bra Jag simmar bra. I'm swimming well.
Jag simmar bättre än du. I can swim better than you.
Jag simmar bäst I can swim the best.
Han beter sig roligt He is behaving funny.
Hon dansar vackert. She is dancing beautifully.
Emma dansar ännu vackrare. She is dancing even more beautifully.

Sum up and confusion

So: Use the normal adjective form when dealing with people or en-words. Add -t if it's a t-word and -a if it's plural or it's between a specification and a noun in a specific form. Curse the "små"-exception!

Except for the most common adjectives like bra/bättre/bäst, just add -are and -ast and it's mostly OK, but sometimes the vowel changes (stor större störst) and words like vacker drops the e: vacker vackrare vackrast,

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